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Post by thelivyjr » Tue Sep 10, 2019 1:40 p

And getting back to the Decemvirs of Rome, the story continues as follows, to wit:

When news arrived of incursions by the Sabines and Aequi, the decemvirs attempted to convene the Senate, which assembled only with difficulty, as many of the senators had left the city rather than suffer the decemvirs, or refused to obey their summons, on the grounds that the decemvirs now held no legal office.

When the Senate had gathered, two of the senators openly and vocally opposed the decemvirs.

Lucius Valerius Potitus and Marcus Horatius Barbatus argued that the decemvirs' term of office had expired, and that they held no legal authority; the decemvirs were worse than kings; for now the Roman people suffered under ten Tarquins.

Claudius' uncle, Gaius, spoke on his behalf, urging that no action be taken against the decemvirs for the time being.

Appius ordered one of the lictors to arrest Valerius, but he appealed to the people, and escaped punishment when Lucius Cornelius Maluginensis, the brother of one of the triumvirs, seized hold of Appius, ostensibly to protect him from the crowd, but in fact to distract him.

The Senate appointed a military command to the decemvirs, but they were defeated on both fronts, and their armies quickly retreated behind sturdy defenses.

Meanwhile, two crimes occurred which proved to be the decemvirs' undoing.

First, a soldier named Lucius Siccius, who had proposed the election of new tribunes, and that the soldiers should refuse to serve until the decemvirs were replaced, was murdered on the orders of the decemvirs' commanders, who attempted to cover up the deed by claiming that he had been ambushed and killed by the enemy, despite putting up a brave fight.

The truth was discovered when his body was found surrounded only by Romans, with no enemy corpses.

The second, and more famous misdeed concerned a young woman named Verginia, the daughter of a centurion, Lucius Verginius.

She was betrothed to Lucius Icilius, tribune of the plebs in BC 456.

Desiring her for himself, Appius sent his servant, Marcus Claudius, to kidnap Verginia, on the pretext that she was Appius' slave.

When her plight became known, Appius consented to release her pending a trial of his claim, but maintained steadfastly, and over the objections of Verginia's father and Icilius, that she was his slave.

Rather than have his daughter dishonoured by the decemvir, her father seized a knife from a butcher in the marketplace, and stabbed Verginia to death.

Claudius ordered the arrest of Icilius, but the lictor was blocked by Valerius and Horatius; before they could be arrested, the crowd came to their aid, and Claudius fled for his life.

The Senate gave the military command to Valerius and Horatius, who were duly elected consuls after the decemvirs were forced to resign.

Once the threat from the Sabines and Aequi was dealt with, the decemvirs were brought to trial.

Gaius Claudius again pleaded on behalf of his nephew, but Verginius demanded that Appius face justice; according to Dionysius, Appius was said to have hanged himself in prison before he could be tried, but the popular suspicion was that he was put to death at the orders of the plebeian tribunes.

Livy reports that Appius killed himself before his trial.

The other decemvirs went into exile, except for Spurius Oppius, who was tried, condemned, and put to death on the same day, for the crime of cruelly beating an old soldier.

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Post by thelivyjr » Fri Sep 13, 2019 1:40 p

Those who use a mirror of brass can see to set their cap;

Those who use the mirror of antiquity can predict the rise and fall of nations!

Exploring Your Mind

The 12 Jungian Archetypes

January 26, 2019

Carl Jung's 12 personality archetypes are the foundation of ancient works like The Odyssey and we can also see them in contemporary stories like The Matrix.

Carl Gustav Jung is perhaps the most famous dissident of classic psychoanalysis.

He strayed away from Freudian ideas and explored ancestral roots and the collective unconscious and had many revolutionary ideas.

One of them was the 12 Jungian archetypes of personality.

To define his 12 archetypes of personality, Jung studied the symbols and myths of many different cultures.

These archetypes represent behavior patterns that make up different ways of being.

They’re also cultural symbols and images that exist in the collective unconscious.

“One does not become enlightened by imagining figures of light, but by making the darkness conscious."

"The later procedure, however, is disagreeable and therefore not popular.”

- Carl Jung-

He defined the 12 Jungian archetypes as an innate tendency to generate images with intense emotional meaning that express the relational primacy of human life.

They’re imprints that are buried in our unconscious.

These terms define the particular traits that we all have.

The 12 Jungian archetypes

1. The Sage

The sage is a free thinker.

Their intellect and knowledge are their reason for living, their essence.

They seek to understand the world and their being by using their intelligence and analytical skills.

They always have a fact, a quote, or a logical argument on the tip of their tongue.

2. The Innocent

The innocent seems to have read and absorbed every self-help book in the world.

They’re optimistic and always searching for happiness.

The innocent sees the good in everything.

They want to feel well-adjusted to the world around them.

The innocent also wants to please others and feel like they belong.

3. The Explorer

The explorer is a bold traveler.

They set out without a clear path and are always open to novelty and adventure.

The explorer has a deep love of discovering new places and new things about themselves.

The downside of the explorer archetype is that they’re always searching for perfection and they’re never satisfied.

4. The Ruler

The ruler is a classic leader.

They believe they should be the one to bring order to any situation.

The ruler is stable, strives for excellence, and wants everyone to follow their lead.

They tend to have plenty of reasons why everyone should listen to them.

This is one of the 12 Jungian archetypes related to power.

The ruler, in their desire to impose their will on others, can easily become a tyrant.

5. The Creator

The creator has a profound desire for freedom because they love novelty.

They love to transform things in order to make something completely new.

The creator is clever, non-conformist, and self-sufficient.

They’re imaginative and good-humored.

However, they can also be inconsistent and spend more time thinking than actually doing.

6. The Caregiver

The caregiver feels stronger than other people.

Consequently, they offer maternal protection to those around them.

They want to protect people from harm and try to prevent any danger or risk from threatening other people’s happiness.

In extreme cases, the caregiver turns into a martyr who constantly reminds everyone of their sacrifices.

7. The Magician

The magician is like a great revolutionary.

They regenerate and renew not just for themselves, but for others as well.

They’re constantly growing and transforming.

The negative side of the magician archetype is that their mood can be contagious.

They sometimes turn positive events into negative ones.

8. The Hero

The axis of a hero’s life is power.

The hero has an uncommon vitality and resistance that they use to fight for power or honor.

They’ll do anything to avoid losing.

In fact, they don’t lose because they never give up.

The hero can be overly ambitious and controlling.

9. The Rebel

The rebel is a transgressor.

They provoke people and don’t care at all about other people’s opinions.

As a result, they like going against the grain and thinking for themselves.

They don’t like to be pressured or influenced.

The negative side to the rebel archetype is that they can become self-destructive.

10. The Lover

The lover is all heart and sensitivity.

They love love and love to lavish it on other people.

Their greatest happiness is feeling loved.

They enjoy everything that’s pleasing to the senses.

They value beauty (in every sense of the word) above all.

11. The Jester

The jester likes to laugh, even at themselves.

They don’t wear any masks and tend to break down other people’s walls.

They never take themselves seriously because their goal is to enjoy life.

The negative side of the jester is that they can be lewd, lazy, and greedy.

12. The Orphan

The orphan archetype walks around with open wounds.

They feel betrayed and disappointed.

They want other people to take charge of their life.

When no one does, they feel disappointed.

They tend to spend time with people who feel just like them.

The orphan often plays the victim.

They pretend to be innocent.

The orphan has a cynical side and manipulative talent.

The 12 Jungian archetypes we describe here aren’t the only version of Jung’s ideas.

Other versions include different archetypes.

However, they’re essentially the same, just with slightly different names.

You can use these archetypes in many fields, including psychotherapy, marketing, and art. ... rchetypes/
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, writer, playwright and poet of the Renaissance period.

He has often been called the father of modern political philosophy and political science.

For many years he served as a senior official in the Florentine Republic with responsibilities in diplomatic and military affairs.

He wrote comedies, carnival songs, and poetry.

His personal correspondence is of high importance to historians and scholars.

He worked as secretary to the Second Chancery of the Republic of Florence from 1498 to 1512, when the Medici were out of power.

He wrote his best-known work The Prince (Il Principe) in 1513, having been exiled from city affairs.

Machiavellian is widely used as a pejorative to characterize unscrupulous politicians of the sort Machiavelli advised most famously in The Prince.

Machiavelli described immoral behavior, such as dishonesty and the killing of innocents, as being normal and effective in politics.

He even encouraged it in many situations.

The book gained notoriety due to claims that it teaches "evil recommendations to tyrants to help them maintain their power".

The term Machiavellian often connotes political deceit, deviousness, and realpolitik.

Even though Machiavelli has become most famous for his work on principalities, scholars also give attention to the exhortations in his other works of political philosophy.

His much less popular treatise, the Discourses on Livy, is often said to have paved the way of modern republicanism.

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