ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

thelivyjr
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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Wed Jul 14, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

The Puritans, as the Plymouth, Massachusetts, pioneers were called, fled with their pastor, the Rev. John Robinson, in the year 1607, from England to Amsterdam in Holland; from thence they soon after removed to Leyden.

From the latter place, in the year 1620, they went to Southampton in England, from whence they embarked for America on the 5th day of August of the same year, and after a long, tedious voyage, anchored in Cape Cod harbor, on the 10th day of the following November.

The colony which European persecution there planted, although several times on the eve of annihilation, was the means of peopling all New England.

Queen Anne, who received the crown of England in the year 1702, knowing that the Germans were in general peaceable, loyal subjects, and lovers of liberty from principle -- anxious to increase the population of her American colonies, held out strong inducements to this hardy and industrious race of people to become British subjects.

She offered to give them lands, if they would settle on the frontier of certain colonies, and furnish them at the beginning with necessary tools, provisions, &c.

What added to the inducement, they could there practice their own form of religious worship.


There is a charm in the word liberty, that converts a desert wild into a paradise, and severs the cords of the fraternal, social circle.

The generous offers of Queen Anne induced thousands to bid a final farewell to the land of their nativity -- cross the foaming Atlantic, and erect their altars of worship in the wilds of America, thousands of miles from the luring places to which they were known in childhood.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Thu Jul 15, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

Schoharie, with the exception of its Indian inhabitants, was first settled by the Germans and Dutch, and to religion and the love of liberty is that settlement mostly to be attributed.

In saying Schoharie, I allude to all the settlements first made in Schoharie county, without distinction of towns; as a territory of many miles in extent, now making a part of several towns, was, at first, known by no other name than that of Schoharie.

I find it somewhat difficult to harmonize the contradictory statements, tending to fix the precise year in which the Germans first arrived in that valley.

Brown says "they sailed on new year's day in the year 1710, from some port on the Rhine, down that river to Holland, from whence they sailed to England; that being there further provided, they sailed for America; and after a tedious voyage in which a great many died, they landed at New York on the 14th day of June, 1712; having been one year five months and several days (over two years,) on their journey; that they were then sent up the Hudson river to East and West Camp, (so called from the circumstance of their having encamped there,) where they wintered in ground and log huts."

"That from there the spring following, they went to Albany, from whence some found their way to Schoharie, after a journey of four days by an Indian foot path, bearing upon their backs tools and provisions with which they had been provided by agent of the queen."

Brown is doubtless in error about the time the emigrants were coming from Germany to New York; it could not have been upwards of two years, as it would seem by his data.

Many of the aged people with whom I have conversed on this subject, agree in fixing the date of their departure from Leyden in Holland, as early as 1709, while some others name that year as the traditionary one in which they first reached Schoharie.

A record in the Lutheran church at Schoharie, states that Abraham Berg, from Hessen, came to America in 1709, but the record was made many years subsequent to that date, and may be inaccurate; recording the time of arrival here, instead of departure from Hessen.

From a comparison of all the evidence collected on the subject, I believe they left Germany late in 1709, arrived at New York in 1710, and the following year went to Schoharie.

Smith's History of New York informs us, that General Hunter, who had been appointed governor of the province, arrived at New York on the fourteenth day of June, 1710, bringing with him near three thousand Palatines, who, the year before, had fled to England from the rage of persecution in Germany.

That "many of these people seated themselves in the city of New York, where they built a Lutheran church; others settled on a tract of several thousand acres, in the manor of Livingston, where they still have a village called the Camp, which is one of the pleasantest situations on Hudson's river; right opposite, on the west bank are many other families of them."

"Some went into Pennsylvania, and by the favorable accounts of the country, which they transmitted to Germany, were instrumental to the transmigration of many thousands of their countrymen into that province."

"Queen Anne's liberality to these people," he adds, "was not more beneficial to them than serviceable to this colony."

"They have behaved themselves peaceably, and lived with great industry."

"Many are rich; all are Protestants, and well affected to the government: the same may be said of those who have settled amongst us, and planted the lands westward of Albany."

"We have not the least ground for jealousy with respect to them."

It will be observed, that the arrival at New York of the Germans by whom Schoharie was undoubtedly settled, was on the same day of the same month, two years earlier than the date given by Brown, as the one on which they arrived.

There can remain little doubt, that the time of their arrival as given by Smith is correct.

Another writer, Spafford, in his Gazetteer of New York, speaking of Livingston's manor, says: "In the year 1710, agreeably to an arrangement with Queen Anne of England, the proprietor conveyed a tract of six thousand acres adjoining the Hudson, from the south-eastern part of the manor, to a number of Palatines, who had served in her armies, and were now driven from Germany by the French army."

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Fri Jul 16, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

The same writer, speaking of Germantown, Columbia county, in which town is the village of East Camp, says: "In June, 1710, seventy families of poor Palatine soldiers who had served in the army of Queen Anne, by whom they were hired of the Electorate of the Palatinate, arrived at New York, the most of whom soon removed to these lands, then included in Livingston's manor."

The reader will here understand why these people were called Palatines.

Palatine is a term which was formerly given to a prince, and probably is still, in some parts of Germany.

He was invested with royal privileges to preside over a certain territory, called a Palatinate; hence emigrants from such countries in Germany, as are subject to the government or direction of a Palatine, have been called Palatines or Palatinates.


"In 1725," continues Spafford, "according to an arrangement of King George I. with the proprietor, letters patent were granted to certain persons belonging to the settlement of East Camp, as it was then called, as trustees for the whole, conveying the right of soil in perpetuity for the use of said inhabitants."

"And the grant seems to have been well devised, with the whole conditions on which it was made."

"Forty acres were directed to be appropriated to the use of a church and the maintenance of a school, and the residue to be equally divided among the inhabitants, which was faithfully performed by the trustees."

"This little colony received many marks of the kindness, care and beneficence of Queen Anne, under whose special patronage it was first planted."

"The country was then wholly wild, and the first encampments were distinguished by local names."

"Hence came East Camp, a more general name of three little lodges in this town; and West Camp, the name of a similar settlement on the opposite side of the river, now in Saugerties, Ulster county."

"The settlements first commenced by three small lodges of temporary huts, each of which was placed under the superintendance of some principal man, from whom they took their names, with the addition of dorf, a German word for village."

"Hence Weiser's dorf, Kneiskern's dorf, names now disused, except by a very few of the ancient Germans"

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Sat Jul 17, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

According to Spofford's account it would appear as though the first settlers at the Camps, had been hired by Queen Anne to serve in her wars.

But the other published accounts, and tradition, which seems not to have slumbered on this subject, unite in ascribing their emigration from Germany chiefly to religious oppression.


It is not improbable that some of the most warlike of those Germans, may have aided the colonies and Iroquois in the war they were then waging with Canada; a distinguished historian does indeed say that some of them were so engaged; (See Bancroft's U.S. vol. iii, p.221) -- but that those who tarried at the Camps left their native land for that purpose, seems hardly admissible, from the fact, that male and female, old and young, great and small were included in this group of immigrants; the major part of which would have been sorry materials for an army.

He must be in error about the number of the first settlers, unless two different parties arrived at the Camps during the same year, which is not improbable; as more than seventy families, which he gives for their whole number there, removed to Schoharie; at which time many families settled along the Mohawk river.

It is highly probable, that of those who arrived, seventy families at least remained at the Camps, and became permanent settlers.

Few incidents worthy of notice, in the long journey of these emigrants, have been preserved.

They are said to have embarked from Plymouth, a port somewhat celebrated for the embarkation of Europeans to this continent.

While the ship was lying at anchor some distance from the shore, awaiting for a fair wind or sailing orders, with the emigrants on board, six of them went to land in a boat to make some necessary purchases.

Only one name of the six is now remembered, that was Becker.

He was a relative of the ancestors of the Beckers, who now live on Fox's creek, in the present town of Schoharie.

After making purchases, they put off to regain the ship; but having a gale of wind to encounter, which had sprung up while they were on shore, the boat capsized and its crew were all buried in the raging billows.

With this unhappy commencement, it is but natural to suppose their surviving friends anticipated a voyage across the Atlantic, fraught with difficulty and danger: indeed such it proved; for it was protracted by adverse winds to a length of months, and rendered truly appalling, when, as provisions began to fail them, they saw grim death, through all the horrors of starvation, staring them in the face.

Before they reached New York, crumbs were sought for by the half starved children in every nook and corner, and when fortune thus discovered to them the scanty object of their search, no matter how filthy or stale, it was considered a God-send and greedily devoured.


Several passengers died on the voyage: one old lady, who had been ill of consumption for some time, died and was consigned to the deep at the Narrows, below New York.

If several died on the journey, it is not certain that the whole number of the emigrants was less at their final debarkation, than it was when they left the land of their fathers, as I have to record the fact, that the rule of ancient arithmetic, which subtracts one from one and leaves two, was not unfrequently exemplified during the passage.

By the by, that is a valuable rule in peopling all new countries.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Sun Jul 18, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

Soon after they landed at New York, they were sent up the Hudson to the Camps; (with the exception of those who became permanent settlers in the city, and those who went to Pennsylvania;) where they made a temporary location.

As they did not arrive at New York until the middle of June, it will be observed that the season had too far advanced to allow those who intended to become frontier settlers, or citizen farmers, to select an approved location, and raise their sustenance for that season: they therefore went into quarters to await the return of Spring.

They erected temporary huts, settling in seven squads or messes, each with a head man or commissary, through whom they received their provisions from an agent of the Queen, until they were permanently located.

Conrad Weiser, Hartman Winteker, John Hendrick Kneiskern, Elias Garlock, Johannes George Smidt and William Fox were six of the number; and as John Lawyer became one after their arrival at Schoharie, he may have made the seventh.

The several settlements over which they presided, were called dorfs, signifying towns.

Each of the said "list men," as Judge Brown termed them, (from the fact, that each had enrolled on a list or schedule, the names of every man, woman and child belonging to his beat;) was obliged to make careful report, from time to time, to the royal agent, of all changes in his dorf; of its approaching wants, etc.

How these honest, good natured, simple people, spent the greater part of a year at the Camps, this deponent has been unable to learn; but as they possessed the characteristic good nature of their mother country, were fond of athletic exercises, not to the exclusion of fumigation however, he supposes, as the Queen's punctual agent did not allow them to anticipate much care or concern about their temporal affairs, that they "drove dull cares away," by what their descendants term frolicking: and that although they were in a strange land, then resolved it should be to them a land of social enjoyment.

The reader is ready to ask, what means the term frolicking in this place?

It means, as I have been assured by the descendants of those virtuous and happy people, the indulgence of certain propensities of the human heart to seek pleasure.

They fiddled, they danced, they ran foot races; and groups were not unfrequently seen among them, jumping, wrestling, &&c., in summer: while winter found them, skating, or playing various kinds of plays, such as now sometimes make part of an evening's entertainment at a village party, in which bussing, that delectable finale to which they generally tend, bears a conspicuous part.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Mon Jul 19, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

Some sedate mortal, on whom life hangs heavily, may be ready to exclaim, "strange that a people who left their native land on account of religious persecution, should have allowed their children or any of their numbers, to indulge in such foolish propensities!"

It is indeed strange; but no less strange than true, if they lived at the Camps as they afterwards did in Schoharie.

One fact however, might be urged in mitigation of their wickedness, if such the reader terms it.

Not a particle of hypocrisy, that ingredient so necessary in making up the human character at the present day, dwelt in the hearts of these people.

The reader will remember, that I have not called them a fashionable people.

Naturally honest themselves, they supposed others so, and had imbibed liberally those true German principles of nature, founded on a belief, that "there is a proper time for every purpose;" which bade them not look to the morrow, for that which rightly belonged to the present day; or anticipate the troubles to which man is heir, and which are so profusely scattered along his path.

That there were many among those emigrants who lived pious and exemplary lives, not approving the course of their fellows, there can be no doubt.

At what time in the spring of 1711, those who had not chosen to remain at the Camps, moved up the river to Albany, is uncertain.

It must have been as early as circumstances would allow.

On their arrival at that Dutch city, they sent several individuals of their number into the Mohawk and Schoharie vallies, to spy out a good location for their permanent settlement.

Perhaps it may be well to say a few words in this place, in explanation of the term Dutch.

Emigrants from the German circles, were originally called Germans or High Dutch; and indeed continued to be so called, long after their emigration to this country; while those from Holland or the United Provinces were called Dutch: or, in contra-distinction of the term High Dutch given the Germans, Low Dutch.

Many persons of the present day, unacquainted with the geography of Europe, express surprise to hear the distinction of the terms German and Dutch made, supposing them synonymous.

The German circles or states, and Dutch provinces, are as distinct countries, as are England and Scotland, perhaps more so; and their languages as little alike, as were formerly those of the latter countries.

Nor indeed are the former under the same government, which is the case with the latter; and yet people express no surprise to hear the distinction of English and Scotch emigrants made, when those countries are in question.

When the historian tells us that the Dutch settled at Albany, which was by them called Willemstadt, where they built Fort Orange; and at New York, then called New Amsterdam, in or about the year 1614, nearly one hundred years previous to the settlement of Schoharie; he does not intend to be understood that those places were settled by Germans, but by Hollanders or Dutch.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Tue Jul 20, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

As the sections of the United States, originally peopled by the Dutch and Germans, received additional settlers from other countries, and conformed to the English language, -- the whole assimilating by gradual process to new characteristics, as their old were reluctantly absolved; the sectional appellatives of all, whether English, Scotch, or Irish -- Dutch, German, or Swiss, yielded to two simple terms, Yankee and Dutch.

The German messengers, with whom we parted company a short time since, deputed to Schoharie, were conducted by an Indian guide over the Helleberg, 8 and on the second day they gained a commanding view of the flats along Fox's creek.

They proceeded down that stream, until from one of the hills which skirt its lowlands, they gained a prospect of the Schoharie valley, at the place where Fox's creek runs into the Schoharie.

There their vision was delighted by one of the most beautiful and picturesque scenes, with which nature has decorated the earth.

They beheld the green flats of Schoharie, spread out before them like a beautiful, though neglected garden.

To the west, directly opposite the mouth of said creek, their view was obstructed by a romantic mountain rising several hundred feet, and terminating in a bold cliff towards them.

I regret that I have been unable to learn the original Indian name of that mountain: the Germans called it the Clipper berg, meaning the rocky mountain.

I take the liberty of giving to it, the name of Karighondontee, intending by so doing to perpetuate the name of the Schoharie Indian tribe.

On the summit of the Karighondontee, is a cultivated farm formerly owned by Henry Hamilton, Esq., an excursion to which often rewards the rambler in the summer season, with one of the most enchanting views imaginable.

Off to the right hand of the deputation, as they stood on the summit of the hill, near where it descends into the two valleys, on the north side of Fox's creek; they were enabled to catch a view of the great bend in the river, where it takes a more easterly course, immediately after receiving Cobel's kill.

They did not long tarry to contemplate on the richness of the prospect, which the union of those three valleys, beautified as they then were by luxurious spring, was calculated to create.

Perhaps there was no Mozart present, to catch inspiration from the wanton carol of the countless feathered musicians, by which they were surrounded: or Spurzheim to forestal the virtues, perchance the hidden wealth, of the hilly protuberances which rose in romantic grandeur, on which side so ever they gazed.

The hill on which I have supposed the pilgrim messengers to have stood, and from which they caught a view of "the promised land," the Indians called Oxt-don-tee.

After taking this hasty glance of the country before them, which they no doubt did with eyes and ears, if not mouths, open; they returned speedily to Albany, and reported progress to their anxious bretheren.

Would kind reader, I could serve you with the maiden speeches of those honest spies, who were among the first white men known to have trod upon Schoharie soil: but in the absence of such an intellectual treat, your own fertile imagination must create them.

They were delivered before the immortal seven, who were the sanhedrim of the multitude, and one thing is certain: they were fraught with a prevailing argument against the entire Mohawk valley, which was not even allowed a hearing: and nearly the whole caravan, 9 loaded down like so many pack horses with provisions and tools, without a vehicle of any kind, started forthwith for Schoharie.

8. On arriving upon this mountain, which is a spur of the Catskill mountains, those emigrants halted on several eminences to enjoy the rich prospect thus afforded. Helle-signifies light or clear, and berg-hill or mountain. Hence the appropriate name they gave it--Helleberg, Prospect Hill or Sightly Mountain. Helderberg, the Dutch orthography for this word, has, within a few years, very improperly gained place; its original German name being far more poetic and soft.

9. As the German settlements along the Mohawk were commenced about the same time with those of Schoharie, it is not improbable, that the relatives of the messengers sent up that river, awaited their return at Albany, and on their bringing a favorable report of the country, removed thither.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Wed Jul 21, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

The interval lands which the deputies had visited, were, at that time, to a great extent cleared or timberless, and presented the appearance of a limited prairie: and few were the native inhabitants, who then dwelt upon them.

These two considerations, no doubt, greatly influenced the hasty decision of the colonists.

Gentle reader, you, who ride perhaps in a gilded carriage, and think elliptic springs and a good road scarcely endurable, must not be offended when informed, that your great-great-grandmothers, (I am now speaking to the fair sex, of the uncontaminated decendants, of the primogenial pilgrims to the happy valley, not of Rasselas, but Schoharie;) clad in linsey-woolsey of limited length, bearing each in their arms an heir apparent, and each on their back a sack of provisions or unmentionables; set out on foot to make this long journey, upon an intricate Indian foot path. 10

Would you ask why their husbands did not carry the burthens, thus imposed upon their amiable consorts?

I have already said they had not a vehicle of any kind; nor indeed had they the aid of even a single horse; consequently the husbands and all the children able to bear burthens, were heavily laden.

They left Albany on Thursday, and as may be supposed, their progress was necessarily very slow.

Nights they slept in the open air, after having built fires to keep off the wolves, which thickly infested the forest through which they were journeying.

Nothing remarkable happened during the first two day's journey.

On Saturday they reached the present site of Knoxville, which appears to be the summit level between Albany and Schoharie, where they halted and assembled together.

Some misunderstanding having arisen, a contest ensued, in which many of the party were engaged, from which circumstance the place has since been known by the older inhabitants, as Fegt berg, or fighting hill.

What gave rise to this quarrel, I have been unable to learn.

It is not improbable that the "green eyed monster" was the direct or indirect cause, originating in a spirit of emulation to direct the movements of the party.

No one seems to have been very seriously injured by this unlooked for trial of strength; the insurgents were overpowered, good order again restored, and the line of march resumed.

10. This journey of thirty odd miles, is looked upon at the present day as a small matter, since a stage rattles over it every day; but it was far otherwise at that period. Many were the tears of sympathy shed in Albany, at the departure of these good people, because they were going so far from any other settlement. What changes time brings. Where is now your sympathy, O ye Albanians! for the comely looking Swiss maidens and their forlorn mothers, who are now in motley groups, lingering not unfrequently a few days with you, ere they commence a western journey, which may number thousands of miles?

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Thu Jul 22, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

On Sunday, (probably in the latter part of April) a day of seven, dedicated to cleansing and decorating the outward man of the civilized world, having arrived at a small brook, which descends from the hills on the north side of Fox's creek, and runs into the latter near the present residence of Samuel Stevens, and within sight of the Schoharie valley, the party halted and resolved on having a general purifying.

Says Brown, "while washing, the lice were swimming down the brook; which is called Louse kill to this day."

Tradition corroborates this story.

I may have occasion hereafter to speak of the cleanliness of the descendants of these people.

There can be little doubt, but that the washing adventure, may prove a mirror to many parties of emigrants, who have been long journeying.

It is not difficult to account for the fact, that the most negligent of the number, (for I cannot believe all were so) should have become filthy.

They were poor, had not changes of apparel; of course, the clothing they wore, without much pains-taking to keep it clean, must have become dirty: add to this the fact, that they had been for a great length of time, either journeying or dwelling in rude huts, in either case greatly crowded, without any conveniences for private ablution; and we have a plausible reason to believe the story a true one.

Poor people, although cleanly, find it difficult at times, to exhibit evidences of their neatness, especially while traveling.

The Schoharie flats to which they were journeying, and upon which they arrived on the day of their purifying, had been purchased of the natives by an agent of the Queen, to prevent future hostilities between them and the Germans.

The tract of land thus purchased, began on the little Schoharie kill in the town of Middleburg, at the high water mark of the Schoharie river, at an oak stump burned hollow, which stump is said to have served the Mohegan and Stockbridge Indians, the purposes of a corn mill; and ran down the river to the north, taking in the flats on both sides of the same, a distance of eight or ten miles, containing twenty thousand acres.

By the side of this stump was erected a large pile of stones, which was still standing since the year 1800.

Upon this stump was cut the figures of a turtle and a snake, the ensign of the Karighondontee tribe, the Indian seal of the contract.

Having arrived in safety, the Germans settled along the Schoharie on the land provided by the queen, in several villages or dorfs, as they called them, under the direction of the seven individuals, who acted at the Camps as their captains or commissaries.

Prudence, no doubt, dictated the necessity of settling near together, that they might be the better prepared to anticipate any hostile movement of their Indian neighbors.

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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Re: ON THE ROOTS OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

Post by thelivyjr » Fri Jul 23, 2021 1:40 p

HISTORY OF SCHOHARIE COUNTY

by Jeptha R. Simms - 1845

CHAPTER I, continued ...

Weiser's dorf, (so called after Conrad Weiser the founder,) was the most southern village, and occupied part of the present site of the village of Middleburg.

This dorf contained some forty dwellings.

They were small, rude huts, built of logs and earth, and covered with bark, grass, &&c.

They were built on both sides of a street, which ran nearly east and west, and may have been called Weiser street.

Hartman's dorf was the next settlement down the river, and was about two miles north of Weiser's dorf.

This was the only one of the settlements called after the christian name of its founder or patroon: his name having been Hartman Winteker.

This flekken, 11 (if the largest village in seven merited the name,) is said to have contained sixty-five dwellings, similar in construction to those spoken of in the dorf above.

The Germans, (as is the custom of their descendants,) built their ovens detached from their dwellings: and thirteen are said to have answered all the good house-wives of Hartman's dorf, the purposes of baking.

Like the former, this village was built along one street; and I am gratified to think I can inform the reader precisely where it was situated.

Every man who has traveled from Schoharie Court House to Middleburg will remember, that having proceeded about three miles, and crossed two brooks, the most southern of which was called, in former days, the Wolf's kill, he came to two angles in the road, between which, he perceived his course changed from south to west for the distance of, perhaps a quarter of a mile.

He will also remember, no doubt, how straight and level that part of the road was, gently descending to the west; and, too, that he expressed surprise to his companion, or, if he had no more sensible person with him, to himself, that the road had never been straightened.

Now, since I have traced the location of Hartman's dorf by tradition, to the immediate vicinity of this knoll or table-land, upon which the two angles in the road appear, and have too much charity to believe, that that part of the road would not have been straightened, had the commissioners who laid it out not had some noble object in view, I have come to the conclusion, and doubt not the good sense of the reader will bear me out in it, that that part of the road which runs, east and west, between the angles spoken of, was once Hartman's street, and that upon each side of it once stood the unpretending dwellings of Hartman's dorf.

11. Dorf means a compact farmer's town or small village; flekken a larger village than a dorf and less than a city: and stadt, an incorporated city-- Brown

TO BE CONTINUED ...

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