HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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Re: HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

On June 24, Lieutenant Van Hovenburgh of Colonel Weissenfel's 4th New York Regiment made entry in his journal: "One of our Regt. was shot by the sentence of Court Martial for Desertion."

In Capt. Leonard Bleeker's Order Book W is stated: "James Titus, Soldier in the 5th New York Regt. was tryed for Desertion, found guilty, and sentenced to be shot at the Head of his Regiment."

"The General approved the Sentence and orders it to be put in Execution tomorrow Morning at 6 o'clock."

On June 25 Van Hovenburgh states "A constant transporting of Stores to the Lake."

June 25 — McKendry of the 6th Massachusetts Regiment states in his journal "Col. Dubois Regt. Arrived at this Lake and proceeded in Boats to Lows Mills."

(From Hyde Bay around the west foot of Wellington Mountain to Camp Liberty Post.)

On June 26 the Waiontha beaver dam was broken open by Scout Matthew DeGarmore and his assistants, and the basin was discharging a torrent of water down the creek to Otsego Lake.

[Francis Whiting] Halsey in The Old New York Frontier makes an egregious blunder on page 260 in stating "Simms records certain traditions of the country that in order further to increase the flow of water, a party was sent to open a beaver dam which held the waters of Schuyler's Lake" and Hough in his notes to Capt. Leonard Bleeker's order book makes it still more geographically erroneous in stating "a party was sent two or three days before, to break away a Beaver Dam, which held the waters of Schuyler Lake, a tributary to the Otsego."

This could not be so, as the waters of Schuyler's Lake (Canadarago) do not empty into the Otsego Lake.

This is one of many instances of the errors made by historians in writing about sections with which they are not familiar.

Lieutenant Beatty, at Springfield Camp, writes: "Saturday 26th — Rained almost all last night but very warm all Day — about 9 o'clock Col. Dubois Regt. arrived here with 2 pieces of Atillery likewise a quantity of Amunition for the expeditions and some Clothing."

"Staid and eat and proceeded to the lake then to take Post, this afternoon Capt. Simpson with his party and Lt. Bevine with his arrived at Camp but brought no news of Consequence, this evening a Number of Wagons arrived here on their way to the Lake with ammunition likewise our P: Mr." [i.e., paymaster.]

On June 26, the ammunition had just arrived at Canajoharie, and it was immediately ordered by wagons, under escort of a Subaltern's Guard by Colonel Gansevoort as far as Colonel Weissenfels' Regiment (Sprout Brook Post), who was to relieve them and send it forward to the next post, Col. William Butler's Fourth Pennsylvania (at Middle Village, Springfield), then taken over by Major Whiting's Sixth Massachusetts Regiment and delivered up to the Conductor of Artillery Stores at Lake Otsego.

"The officers of the different escorts, will give Receipts to those from whom they have received it."

It was ordered this day "General Court Martial, whereof Col. Gansevoort was President, is disolved, William Newbury, who was respited Yesterday is to be executed next Monday morning at 6 o'clock."

TO BE CONTINUED ...
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Re: HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

Monday, the 28th: Beatty of the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment gives the following narrative: "This Day the Col. and a Number of Officers, with myself went to see Col. Dubois and his officers who were encamped at Lows Grove on the upper landing, found them all very well and they provided a very good dinner for us suitable to the place and time, there was about fifty officers, dined together, after Dinner we had a song or two from different Officers and Returned home a little before Sundown."

McKendry of the Sixth Massachusetts elaborates on this dinner as follows: "Went to Camp Liberty at Lows Mills (and dined at that place) Gen'l. Clinton gave each officer on the ground at this post, one cag of Rum containing two Gall."

"Thursday July 1st."

"This day fell some Rain about 2 o'clock."

"Gen. Clinton arrived at our Camp (Springfield Post) with the Adjt. Gen'l. and a number more officers and encamped; about Dark Col. Gansevoort's Regt. arrived here and encamped in front of us, this evening we received orders to march tomorrow morning early."

"Friday. July 2d."

"Accordingly this morning we struck our tents early, the Regt. marched by Cherry Valley to the lower end of the lake."

"The baggage of the Detachment went to Springfield landing [Hyde Bay] with a proper Guard with the Col. the Qr. Masters and myself, put the baggage on board Boats and Proceeded to the lower end of Lake where we arrived about 3 o'clock and found the Regt. there before us."

"Headquarters, South End Lake Otsego 2nd July, 1779."

"Genl. Orderd. One Major, one Capt. two Subalterns, four Sergts., four Corporals, and one hundred and twenty Men to parade Tomorrow Morning at Reveillie Beat, in order to go to the North End of the Lake to transport Provisions to this Place."

"Major Church to command this party, and will put but three Men in each Boat."

On Sunday, the 4th of July, a celebration of the third anniversary of the Declaration of Independence was held at the main camp of Clinton's army, then located at the south end of Otsego Lake near present Cooperstown.

It was made in the following manner, as recorded in the journal of Lieutenant Beatty.

"July 4th."

"Last night we were alarmed by our Centries firing at Indians who was creeping up to them, we Remained under arms one Hour then went to our tents with orders not to pull of our clothes, there was several shots fired before morning, and at Day break we tracked a number of Indians Round about our pickets but never one of them returned our fire."

"Major Parr with his Rifle men went on Scout this morning."

"This Day three year being the Day that Independence was declared it was celebrated by firing a Feu DeJoy all the troops was drew up on the Banks of the Lake in one line with the two pieces of Artillery on the Right there was 13 pieces of cannon fired and three volleys of Musquetry one after another and three Cheers with every fire it was done extraordinary well with great exactness, afterwards the troops was drew up in a Circle by Colums on a little hill when Parson Granoo preached us a sermon suitable to the occasion from the 4 Chapter of Exodus and 12 Verse, afterwards the troops was Dismissed, Col. Rignier Adjt. Genl, gave an invitation to all the officers to come and drink Grog. with him in the evening accordingly a number of officers (almost all) assembled at a large Bowry which he had prepared on the bank of the lake, but however we sot on the ground in a large Circle and closed the Day with a number of Toast suitable a great Deal of Mirth for two or three hours and then Retired to our tents, the whole day was Conducted extremely well considering the place, a great deal of provision came over the Lake here today — Weather very warm."

Headquarters, Otsego Lake.

General Orders.

4th July, 1779.

"This Day being the Anniversary of the Independence of America, the Genl. is pleased to order, that all the Troops under his command should draw a Jill of Rum per Man, extraordinary, in Memory of that Happy Event."

TO BE CONTINUED ...
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Re: HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

From the following entry in Lieutenant Beatty [sic] journal, it is seen that everything had arrived safely at the south end of Lake Otsego by July 5.

"July 5th, Monday."

"Today Col. Aldens Regt. came over with the last of the Provisions and Stores of all sorts and encamped in the center of the second line behind the Artillery, likewise a few of the Oneida Indians come over with the Regt. and encamped on the Banks of the Lake, they all soon got drunk and made a terrible noise."

McKendry journal states, "30 Indians arrived, at this lake to go on the expedition with Genl. Clinton, they were commanded by Col. Hungary."

Stone, in Life of Brant, states there were twenty-five to accompany the expedition.

All but two of these, however, and those of the meaner sort, deserted the expedition before they arrived at Tioga.

A letter from Gen. James Clinton to Governor George Clinton, July 6th, 1779, from "Camp, on the South End of Otsego Lake," states:

"I have the Pleasure to inform you that I am now at this Place, with two hundred and eight Boats, with all the Stores, Provisions, and Baggage of the Army; and I am well convinced that such a quantity of each hath never before been transported over so bad a Road in so short a Time and with less accidents, so that I am now in the most Readiness to move down the Susquehanna whenever I receive General Sullivan's Orders for that Purpose."

"I have thrown a Dam across the Outlet, which I conceive will be of infinite Importance, as it has raised the Lake at least two Feet, by which the Boats may be taken down with less Danger than otherwise, although from the intricate winding of the Channel, I expect to meet some Difficulties on the Way."

With the above letter to the Governor, General Clinton enclosed a letter addressed to Mrs. James Clinton which now is of historic value, inasmuch as it shows that Clinton's brigade consisted of 2,000 men, when it left Otsego Lake.

On the portage, from Canajoharie, the army must have numbered over 2500, including wagoners, etc., and it may have totaled 3,000.

"Camp at the South end of Otsego Lake, July 6th, 1779."

"I left Conojaharie the 1st of July and am now at this place with all the Regiments and Stores for the Expedition, and only wait for orders to March: we have 209 Batteauxs in the Lake and a great quantity of Provisions and other Stores and although the Distance of the Carrying place was at least twenty miles and the Road exceeding bad, we got all over with Expedition and not a Single Accident."

"My Detachment will Consist of about 2000 men, Including Officers, Volunteers and twenty-five Indians who are all healthy and in high spirits."

"I have notheing further to acquaint you of, Except that we apprehended a certain Lt. Henry Hare and a Serg't. Newberry, both of Coll. Butler's Regt., who confessed that they left the Seneca Country with Sixty three Indians and two white men, which Divided themselves in three parties, one party was to attack Schoharie, another party Cherry Valley and the Mohawk River, and the other party to Sculk about Fort Schuyler and the upper part of the Mohawk River and take prisoners or Sculps."

"I had them tryed by a Genl. Court Martial for spies, who sentenced, them both to be hanged, which was Done accordingly at Canajoharie to the satisfaction of all the Inhabitants of that place that were friends to their Country, as they were known to be very active in almost all the murders that were committed on these Frontiers; they were Inhabitants of Tryon County and had each a wife and several children who came to see them and beg their lives."

TO BE CONTINUED ...
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Re: HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

General Orders: Otsego Lake, 9th July, 1779.

"All the Drums and Fifes of the Army, are to practice together every Day, at the usual hours on the Grand Parade."

"The Drum and Fife will attend particularly to this Business, until further Orders, and it is ordered that a uniform Mode be adopted throughout the whole."

"In the beating of Marches, a little more Time (than has hitherto been practiced) must be observed."

"The Drum Major of the 3d. N.Y. Regt. and the Fife Major of the 6th Massachusetts will collect the Names of all Drums and Fifes in the different Regiments, and keep Regular Roster of the Whole."

"Camp. Otsego Lake, 24th July 1779, Gen Orders."

"At a Genl. Court Martial held in Camp July 22, 1779, whereof Col. Duboys was President, and Lieut. Parker Judge Advocate, was tryed: Johnathan Pine, Soldier in the 6th Massachusetts Regt.; Frederick Snyder of the 4th Pena. Regt; and Anthony Dunnovan of the 3d. N.Y. Regt. for Desertion, all of whom were found guilty and sentenced to be shot to death."

"At the same Court Martial were tried Serjt. Spear of the 6th Massachusetts Regt. and Barnard Minck of the 3d. N.Y. Regt, for Desertion, found guilty, and sentenced to receive 100 lashes each, and Spear to be reduced to a Centinel."

Anthony Donnovon had previously deserted from the British Army, and had advised the others, who were younger than himself, to desert from Clinton's Army.

Donnovan was shot, on the parade ground, on the morning of July 28, and, through entreaties of fellow soldiers who pledged themselves for their future conduct, Frederick Snyder and Jonathan Pine were reprieved by the General.

In General Orders, August 1st, it is stated: "The regimental Quarter Master will see their regimental Parade well cleaned, and the Dirt burn't or buried into the sinks."

"The Sinks of each Regiment must be filled up every four Days, and new ones dug up."

In the letter from General Clinton to Governor George Clinton, dated Lake Otsego, August 5, 1779: "Dear Brother: Last Evening I was favored with a letter from Gen'l. Sullivan, dated July 30th, informing me that he determined to leave Wyoming the next Day and requesting me to move the 9th Instant which I will not fail to do."

Here is an item from Van Hovenburgh diary of July 27:

"Express arrived at Camp that the enemy were on the Frontiers, that they had killed and taken 36 of Col. V. Schorck's [Van Schaick's] Men a Scout being Immediately Ordered out consisting of 300 men to take Bateaux to cross the Lake they being under the comd. of Col. Ganseworth [Gansevoort] and Crosd the lake immediately and took their Quarters at Law's Landing July 28."

"Marchd to Fort Plank at Cannojarry near Fort Plain where they laid that night."

"29 — Marchd for the German Flatts, arrived at Fort Herkerman, [Herkimer] about seven at night and took Quarters there and expected, by the intelligence that we collected that Fort Dayton would be attacked in the Morning, but was not, we sent out a scout to Cannady [West Canada] Creek they made some discovery of the Indians tracks that they had drove some cattle."

"31 — Set out marchd to Andreston and from thence to the Otsego Lake and crossed over to camp."

TO BE CONTINUED ...
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Re: HISTORY OF THE MOHAWK VALLEY

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

In the transportation of the Brigade up the Mohawk, in repairing the roads to Lake Otsego, and conveying the boats and provisions over them, the fortitude and patience of the soldiers were severely taxed.

Rev. John Gano, the Brigade Chaplain, was constantly with them, giving good counsel and encouragement.

After continuing for a month at the outlet of the lake the men became very uneasy at the delay.

The parson, on Saturday, August 7, spoke to General Clinton on the subject, who informed him the army would move Monday, but he wished nothing said about it until the orders were issued.

His text on the Sabbath was, "Be ready to depart on the morrow."

At the close of the services, General Clinton announced that the army would move at sunrise the next day, Monday, August 9th, 1779.

On Sunday, August 8, 1779, McKendry states:

"All the boats loaded ready to proceed down the river tomorrow, this Evening 6 o'clock the sluce way was broke up and the water filled the river immediately where a boat could pass, which was almost dry before."

This closes the narrative pertaining to the activities of Gen. James Clinton and his troops in the Mohawk Valley in their march to Otsego Lake, up to the time when they took their departure down the Susquehanna River on August 9th, 1779, to join Gen. John Sullivan at Tioga.

Roster of Officers of Clinton's Army

Sixth Massachusetts Regiment.
Daniel Whiting, Major
William White, Lieutenant and Adjutant
James Lunt, Lieutenant and Adjutant
William McKendry, Lieutenant and Quartermaster
Ezekiel Brown, Surgeon
Francis DeBar, Surgeon Mate
Joseph Tucker, Ensign and Paymaster
Asa Coburn, Captain
Luke Day, Captain
Benjamin Warren, Captain
John Reed, Captain
Daniel Lane, Captain

Third New York Regiment.
Peter Gansevoort, Colonel
Marinus Willett, Lieutenant Colonel
Robert Cochran, Major
Christopher Hutton, Adjutant and Lieutenant
Prentice Bowen, Quartermaster and Lieutenant
Jeremiah Van Rensselaer, Paymaster and Ensign
Hunlock Woodruff, Surgeon
John Elliott, Jr., Surgeon Mate
Leonard Bleeker, Captain
Henry Tiebout, Captain
Thomas DeWitt, Captain
Cornelius T. Jansen, Captain
Aaron Aorson, Captain

Fourth New York Regiment.
Frederick Weissenfels, Lieutenant Colonel
Joseph M. Cracken, Major
Israel Smith, Paymaster and Captain
Peter Elsworth, Adjutant and Lieutenant
James Barrett, Quartermaster and Lieutenant
John F. Vasche, Surgeon
Rudolphus Van Hovenburg, Lieutenant in this Regiment

Fifth New York Regiment.
Lewis Dubois, Colonel
Henry Dubois, Adjutant & Captain Lieutenant
Henry Dodge, Adjutant and Lieutenant
Michael Connolly, Paymaster 2d Lieutenant
James Johnston, Quartermaster and Ensign
Samuel Cook, Surgeon

Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment.
William Butler, Lieutenant Colonel
Thomas Church, Major
George Boss, Lieutenant and Adjutant
Erkuries Beatty, Lieutenant and Paymaster
Peter Sumners, Lieutenant and Quartermaster
Charles McCarter, Surgeon
George Tudor, Captain
William Gray, Captain
Henry Becker, Jr., Captain
William Henderson, Captain
William Cross, Captain

Battalion of Morgan's Riflemen.
James Parr, Major
Michael Simpson, Captain
Thomas Boyd, Lieutenant
Benjamin Chambers, Ensign

Detachment (Col. John Lamb's) Regt. New York Artillery.
Isaiah Wool, Captain
Thomas Machin, Captain
Elisha Harvey, Lieutenant
John Pratt, Assistant Commissary of Issues
William Popham, Aide-de-Camp
Dr. Stephen Macrea, Brigade Surgeon
Rev. John Gano, Brigade Chaplain.

All of the officers of the foregoing regiments and detachments are not given.

It will be seen that captains, lieutenants and ensigns (second lieutenants) are frequently missing from the list.

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

The following is a chronological summary of the march of General Clinton's American army from Canajoharie, on the Mohawk River, to Otsego Lake, in the Sullivan-Clinton campaign of 1779.

It was written by the editor of this work and revised by Mr. John Fea, author of the foregoing chapter.

Summary of General Clinton's Portage March in 1779 from the Mohawk River to Otsego Lake

Gen. James Clinton commanded the New York detachment of the expedition against Indians of the Seneca and Cayuga country, under General Sullivan, in 1779.

The Onondaga castle was burned by a detachment of troops which went out from Fort Stanwix under Col. Gosen Van Schaick.

The object of the Sullivan-Clinton campaign was to weaken the Iroquois Indian power in New York and to destroy their bases of supplies located in their different towns.

The march of General Clinton's American army from the Mohawk River to Otsego Lake forms one of the most notable feats of arms performed during the Revolution, amid a setting of picturesque and varied landscape beauty.

General Clinton's army consisted of the Third, Fourth and Fifth New York Line, the Fourth Pennsylvania Line, and the Sixth Massachusetts Line, together with a detachment of artillery, which was attached to the Fifth New York Regiment, and a company of Schenectady and Tryon County militia volunteers, which was joined to Colonel Gansevoort's Third New York Line Regiment and a battalion of Morgan's Riflemen, attached to the Fifth New York and the Fourth Pennsylvania.

At this time the Fifth New York was stationed at Fort Plain, the Fourth Pennsylvania at the Middle Schoharie Fort (Middleburgh), and the Sixth Massachusetts at Fort Alden, in Cherry Valley.

These were regiments actively guarding the Mohawk frontier.

On June 11, General Clinton, at his Schenectady headquarters, ordered a party of troops to proceed to Canajoharie and lay out a camp there.

The rest of the army, then at Schenectady and Scotia, followed at intervals.

At Canajoharie the Third New York Regiment camped at present Canajoharie village, while the Fourth Pennsylvania camped on the right, between the Third New York and the Happy Hollow road.

The Fourth Pennsylvania, under Lieutenant Colonel Butler, had been stationed at the Middle Schoharie Fort, at present Middleburgh, since 1778.

With him was a battalion of Morgan's Riflemen, one company of which was assigned to the Fifth New York under Colonel Dubois.

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

While Clinton was at Canajoharie he made his headquarters at Roof's Tavern, where the present Hotel Wagner stands.

A monument in the square in front of the hotel marks the start of General Clinton's march to Otsego Lake.

It was erected by Canajoharie Chapter D.A.R.

Two Tory spies, Hare and Newberry, were captured, brought to Canajoharie, tried and hung, during the time of Clinton's stay here.

Lieut. Col. Frederick Weissenfels, Fourth New York Regiment, marched from Albany to Tribes Hill, to Johnstown, to Fort Paris, at Stone Arabia.

It left there on June 17, 1779, and marched to Walrath's Ferry, on the Mohawk River, where it crossed to Fort Plain.

From there it marched to Canajoharie.

The Fourth Regiment went over the south shore highway.

It formed the left wing of Clinton's army and marched over the Cherry Valley road (constructed in 1773) to a point one and one-half miles northeast of present Buel, where it camped over night.

The next day, June 18, 1779, it moved on to present Sprout Brook, north of which hamlet it camped that night.

On June 19th it took up the escort of the supply and batteaux wagons, moving toward Otsego Lake over the Portage road, which then left the south shore Mohawk highway at Happy Hollow, between Fort Plain and Canajoharie.

Clinton's center consisted of the Third New York Regiment, under Col. Peter Gansevoort, and the Fourth Pennsylvania Regiment, under Lieut. Col. William Butler, which guarded the 200 batteaux loaded upon wagons, which went over the easy grade of the Happy Hollow south branch brook road (one mile west of Canajoharie).

The Third New York and the Fourth Pennsylvania camped north of the hamlet of Springfield (burned by Brant, 1778), from June 19 to July 2, awaiting the coming of General Clinton, who arrived there with Colonel Gansevoort on the afternoon of July 1st.

The Sixth Massachusetts Line Regiment, under Major Whiting, marched from Fort Alden, in Cherry Valley, to Otsego Lake, June 18th, and camped that night at Middle Village (Springfield).

This regiment was known as Colonel Alden's regiment, although Alden had been killed in the Cherry Valley massacre in 1778.

It had been stationed at Cherry Valley since the summer of 1778.

The Sixth repelled two attacks of Brant's raiders upon Fort Alden on November 11 and 12, 1778.

Col. Lewis Dubois' Fifth New York Line Regiment, with the artillery, had its headquarters at Fort Plain.

This detachment formed the right wing of Clinton's army.

It moved out of Fort Plain on Friday, June 18th, and went over the Otsquago trail, through Little and Second Woods to the present Upper Hallsville road, crossing the Otsquene (or Crepskill), passing the Geisenberg Lutheran Church and striking the route of the present Otsquago trail at Hallsville.

It moved west, following a line along or to the north of the present Otsquago trail, until it reached Camp Creek, near Starkville, where a stand of artillery was placed to guard against attack, which was expected from the west over the Wiaontha trail.

Here Dubois' command camped on the night of June 18th, 1779, and Camp Creek takes its name from this encampment.

On June 19th the right wing marched to present Brown's Hollow, one and one-half miles north of present Van Hornesville.

Working parties turned the channel of the Otsquago from the north to the south bank of the glen, through which the stream runs in the present village of Van Hornesville.

Within a short time the soldiers had built a corduroy road through Van Hornesville.

The right wing was then deployed, covering a distance of three miles on a road one and one-half miles east of Summit Lake.

This movement was made to guard the center and its supply and batteaux wagons from attack by Brant's Indians, which was expected to be made from the west.

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

The right wing reached the head of Otsego Lake on June 26th, 1779, and established Camp Liberty, in Low's Grove, on the west side of Mount Wellington.

It was then in position to guard the embarkation point at Hyde Bay from attack from the west.

These regiments numbered from 250 to 300 or more men.

With the artillery, militia, batteaux men, wagoners and artificers, General Clinton's army must have numbered 2,500 to 3,000 men while on the portage march.

After the Mohawk Valley farmers, with wagons, horses and oxen, had completed their share of the task and the embarkation was made at present Hyde Bay, Clinton's force considerably lessened in numbers.

General Clinton says his army numbered 2,000 men when it left Otsego Lake.

Clinton reached the foot of Otsego Lake July 2, and on the 4th of July, 1779, all the American troops there camped held a great celebration of the third Independence day.

Clinton dammed the lake outlet and the expedition sailed in its batteaux and marched down the Susquehanna, August 9, 1779.

General Clinton's force formed a juncture with Sullivan's at Tioga on August 22, and the united force moved up the Tioga and Chemung, destroying the Indians' growing crops.

The force of 4,600 Americans met the Tories and Indians under Johnson and Brant near the present city of Elmira on August 29.

A fierce battle ensued and was for long doubtful.

The patriots' artillery under Proctor finally routed the enemy.

The invaders rested that night and next day made a vigorous pursuit.

The entire Indian country was ravaged and destroyed in a most thorough fashion.

In revenge the savages retaliated upon the frontier settlements whenever opportunity offered.

Following the Sullivan and Clinton expedition, Colonel Van Schaick was sent from Fort Stanwix (Schuyler) to destroy the remains of the two Mohawk castles on our river, at present Indian Castle and Fort Hunter.

The settlers around the upper castle had suffered from enemy raids and many had had their homes burned in these forays of the Indians and Tories.

Accordingly, Van Schaick gave the Indian houses at the upper castle to these settlers.

The American commander then took the few Mohawks remaining at the upper castle (present Indian Castle) and proceeded down the river to Fort Hunter.

Here he gathered the few Mohawks then living there and went on, with his Indian prisoners, to Albany, where they were put in custody.

This was the end of the Mohawk tribe in our valley, after a residence here of two centuries.

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

The following covers the execution of Hare and Newberry, who were tried and executed as spies at Canajoharie.

While Clinton was waiting at Canajoharie for his troops and supplies to assemble, two Tories were there hung and a deserter shot.

The Tory spies were Lieut. Henry Hare and Sergeant Newberry, both of Col. John Butler's Tory regiment.

They were tried by a general court martial as spies and sentenced to be hanged, which was done accordingly at Canajoharie.

At the time of the execution General Clinton rode up to Fort Plain and spent an hour or two with Dominie Gros, to avoid the importunity of the spies' relatives and friends, who begged for their lives, and especially was this the case with Mrs. Hare.

Hare and Newberry had left the Seneca country with sixty-three Indians and two white men, who divided them into three parties.

One was to attack Schoharie, another party was to descend on Cherry Valley and the Mohawk River, and the third party was to skulk about Fort Stanwix and the upper part of the Mohawk to take prisoners or scalps.

Both had lived in the town of Florida and were captured there.

A fifteen-year-old boy, named Francis Putman, captured Hare, who was delayed in his return to Canada by a sprained ankle.

A party of Whigs, under Lieutenant Newkirk, arrested Newberry that night.

It is said "they were enabled to find his house in the woods by following a tame deer which fled to it."

While Hare was in custody, at the request of General Clinton, Johannes Roof asked the Tory if he did not kill Caty Steers at Fort Stanwix in 1777.

"For you were seen with your hands in her hair," said Roof.

Hare confessed that he had killed and scalped her.

Both men were brutal murderers who had killed defenseless settlers, including women and children.

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History of the Mohawk Valley: Gateway to the West 1614-1925

Chapter 67: 1779. Clinton's Overland Portage March from the Mohawk to Otsego Lake, by John Fea, Amsterdam., continued ...

Gen. James Clinton was born in Ulster County, New York, August 9, 1736.

At the age of twenty (1756) he was a captain under Bradstreet in the attack on Fort Frontenac.

In 1763 he commanded four companies in Ulster and Orange as protection against Indians.

He, with his brother, George Clinton (governor of New York during the Revolution), early espoused the patriot cause.

He was a colonel in 1775 and went with Montgomery to Canada.

In 1776 he was a brigadier general and was in command, under Governor Clinton, at Forts Montgomery and Clinton when they fell into the hands of the enemy in 1777.

He escaped and, conjointly with Sullivan, led the expedition against the Indians in 1779.

During the remainder of the war he was connected with the Northern Department of the Army, having headquarters at Albany.

He retired to his estate at Newburgh, after peace was declared, and died there in 1812, aged seventy-five.

He was the father of Dewitt Clinton, the eminent governor of New York and "father of the Canal system".

General Clinton was an engineer and surveyor, and his son, Governor Clinton, came naturally by his interest in engineering works and in the Erie Canal.

TO BE CONTINUED ...
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